Quite typical and very common in High Pressure Injection repairs is to see some cured resin being forced out the sides or over the top of the hydraulic cement barrier. Again, the barrier's sole purpose is to provide resistance for the approx. 15 minutes it takes the Polyurethane to change from its injected liquid state to a solid state.
It is optional but usually unnecessary to remove the cement and packers after a repair. If desired, the cement layer can be chiseled off quite easily and a sharp knife or reciprocating saw can be run down parallel to the face of the wall, sheering off the protruding tips of the packers.
Unless landscaping, high grade, interlocking or patterned concrete are on the exterior of the foundation where the crack is, there will most often be signs of the cured Polyurethane Resin penetrating to the exterior. In some cases it may not be visible even though the crack was completely filled but does NOT mean the repair will be compromised in any way.